Inequality Constraints
Network security constraints
Violation of constrains can take place subsequent to
abnormal conditions like a line outage, either
scheduled or forced, which affects the security of the
Sometimes a so called (x-1 study) is performed to
examine the reliability and security of the system
The x-1 study means that the network is studied with
outage of one branch at a time

Inequality Constraints
Transformer tap settings
Sometimes, there is a possibility to change the
voltage in steps, i.e. to chose between different
values rather than varying the voltage smoothly
0 ≤ t ≤ tmax
For auto-transformers, tmax can be unity

 Transformer tap settings

Phase shift-ing transformers have phase shift limits
θmin ≤ θ ≤ θmax

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