System Constraints part 3

Inequality Constraints

Running spare capacity constraints

To ensure the existence of enough spinning reserve to 

overcome any emergency situation

The generation should guarantee a minimum spare capacity 

in addition to load demand and power losses

Pg > PLoad + Ploss

This difference, i.e. spare capacity, is defined according to

economic issues and technical aspects like the ramping rates

of the generators

 Transmission line constraints

 There is a thermal capability of each transmission line that defines the allowed flow of 

active and reactive power

The transmitted power is limited as follows

PT.L ≤ PT.L,max

Where PT.L,max is the maximum loading capacity of the transmission line System
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