System Constraints part 1 

Equality Constraints

The main equality constraints are the basic load flow equations that establish the flow 

balance equations For example, the equality constrains according to Newton-Raphson 

Method are

Inequality Constraints

Generator constraints

The thermal stability of generators requires that the total VA 

"Sg" loading of any generator has not to exceed a certain maximum value Sg-max

Inequality Constraints
Generator constraints There are upper and lower limits

for the reactive power of the generator These limitations

are defined by the overheating of the rotor for the upper

limit and the stability limit of the machine for the lower


Voltage constraints

Both the magnitudes and angles of node voltages have to be controlled in order to keep them

within acceptable limits

The power quality necessitates that the voltage magnitudes at load terminals are kept within 

specific limits or else the equipments will not operate satisfactorily

The regulation of the voltage starts from the generators (exciters) to reduce the cost of extra

voltage regulating devices
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