Reserve power part 1

The choice of the operating and standby unit as well
as the distribution of reserve power on different power
plants depends on the following factors:
The start up cost: depends on the start up time “the
time interval between the order of starting to the
moment where the unit delivers power to the network”
Units with high start up cost have not to be frequently
switched on and off. Such units can provide hot
reserve power but not cold reserve power.

The shut down cost: the cost due to the wasted
energy during the shut down of the unit. It depends
also on the type of the unit
Ramp rate of the unit: the increase of power that
can be obtained from a generating unit in a specific
time. The power can not be increased or decreased
suddenly but it needs a certain time per kW. This
prevents the effective use of slow units (low ramp
rate) for spinning reserve.
The total reserve power is not obtained from a single
unit because this would take a long time. Rather, the
spinning reserve is distributed over the available
units to get the required power in a short time.
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